Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that acts directly on the brain. This is one of the oldest known drugs.
Cyst substance hydrochloride is abused for more than 100 years, and coca leaves (the source of cocaine) have been ingested for thousands of years. When it comes to the pure cocaine, it was first extracted from coca Erythroxylon bush, which grew in Peru and Bolivia, in the mid-nineteenth century. In the early 1900s, it became the main stimulant drug of which are made tonics/elixirs used to treat various diseases. Today, cocaine is the drug of the second degree, which means that it is very often misused, but can be used for legitimate medical purposes, such as a local anesthetic for some eyes, ear and throat surgeries. Basically, there are two chemical forms of cocaine: the hydrochloride “freebase” or free base. Hydrochloride or coke powder is dissolved in water, but when abused, can be taken intravenously (via the vein) or intranasally (in the nose).
The free base is a compound that did not operate with an acid to obtain a hydrochloride. Freebase cocaine is used for smoking. Cocaine is generally sold on the street as a fine, white, crystallized powder in the jargon called “coca”, “Coke” and so on. Dealers in of cocaine add starch, powder, and/or sugar, or drugs such as procaine (a local anesthetic) or stimulants such as amphetamines. It is odorless and has a bitter taste.
Widespread abuse of cocaine has stimulated the development program for the treatment of this type of addiction. Cocaine abuse and addiction are complex issues involving biological changes in the brain, as well as the impact of family and environmental factors. The treatment of cocaine addiction is complex and has to deal with different problems. To function well, the treatment plan must include psychobiological, social, and pharmacological aspects of cocaine abuse.
Scientists are still working on finding and testing of drugs for the treatment of cocaine addiction. A drug that is most promising is selegiline. They have tested two ways of introduction of selegiline, in the form of a patch and in the form of time-released tablets, in order to determine which of them is more effective. Disulfiram, a drug used in the treatment of alcoholism, also proved to be effective in reducing cocaine abuse. Due to changes in sentiment in the initial stages of abstinence, antidepressants have been shown to be useful. With the problem of addiction, there are many cases of overdose and death and therefore, there are medical treatments that are used in emergency cases.
- Behavioral therapy:
There are a lot of different behavioral therapies that have the effect of cocaine dependence, stationary, and ambulatory. Indeed, behavioral therapies are very effective treatment for the majority of problems related to drugs, but also for cocaine addiction, for which there is still no pharmacological cure. However, the integration of the two ways is the most effective way of treatment. The most important thing is to choose a regime of treatment that best suits the needs of the patient. This may require the addition or exclusion of certain components of the individual treatment regime. For example, if the individual is prone to relapse, the program should include a component of relapse. Behavioral therapy that gives the best results in cocaine addicts is Contingency management therapy. This therapy uses a system of positive affirmation and giving points for continuing therapy and not taking cocaine. Urine testing patients earn points that can be exchanged for things that will encourage them to continue a healthy lifestyle, such as enrollment in a course, going to a movie or a dinner.
The next approach is cognitive-behavioral therapy. This therapy allows the achievement of a short-term approach focused on helping drug addicts to abstain from cocaine and other substances. The most important assumption is that the learning process plays an important role in the initiation and continuation of cocaine abuse and creating dependency. The same process of learning can be used for an individual to stop taking the drug. This approach helps the patient to recognize, avoid and deal with stress; to recognize the situation in which most likely reached for cocaine, to avoid this situation, and to more efficiently cope with various problems and challenging behavior which is related to drug abuse. This therapy is worthy of attention because of its compatibility with a range of other therapies, and even with medical treatment.
Therapeutic communities, or stationary programs that last 6 to 12 months, offer an alternative to those in need of treatment of cocaine addiction. Therapeutic communities are usually aimed at different segments of treatment, such as re-socialization of the individual and their reintegration into society, and may include vocational and rehabilitation, as well as other kinds of support. In therapeutic communities are included patients who have more difficult problems, such as mental health problems and the tendency of criminal activity.